In the female reproductive system, the cervix is the narrow passageway that connects the vagina to the uterus. The entire cervix is typically less than three centimeters long and is made up of firm tissue that softens during ovulation. During conception, sperm travels through the cervix to fertilize the egg in the uterus.

Cancer of the cervix is one of the most serious health risks for adult women. Many types of cervical cancer are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), and women can reduce their risks of contracting HPV by undergoing vaccination. Regular Pap smears can identify cervical cancers in their early stages, drastically improving the chances of a full recovery.