A complex, interconnected system of bacteria. In a sexual health context, microflora usually refers to bacteria and other microorganisms in the vagina. This includes bacteria such as lactobacillus and fungi such as Candida albicans (the species that causes yeast infections).

Vaginal flora naturally limits potentially dangerous bacteria and fungi, which keeps the female body clean and healthy. Some lubricant and douche ingredients can affect microflora, increasing the chances of a yeast infection or a bacterial overgrowth; however, most commercial lubricants are completely safe for vaginal use.